https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/1470f9d09f451427 Response to Emil Javier
http://www.motherearthnews.com/organic-gardening/neonicotinoid-insecticides-zmgz14fmzsto.aspx#ixzz36fouJqeQ Brief response to the Commentary “Science to the rescue of coconut industry” This is in response to Dr. E.Q. Javier’s commentary “Science to the rescue of coconut industry” published in July 5th, 2014 issue of the Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://opinion.inquirer.net/76268/science-to-the-rescue-of-coconut-industry Insect outbreaks occur when new strains/species are introduced into areas where they have no or very few natural enemies. However, eventually nature corrects itself; biological control agents appear and multiply in sufficient numbers to control the invaders. But this new state of equilibrium can take years, and by then farmers would have suffered heavy losses. Dr. Javier nailed it so to speak when he said that “eventually nature corrects itself; biological control agents appear and multiply in sufficient numbers to control the invaders. But this new state of equilibrium can take years, and by then farmers would have suffered heavy losses.” This is really what happened in the case of CSI. His example of the psyllid insect outbreak that damaged ipil-ipil trees, took about four (4) years before a new balance between the psyllid and its natural enemies took place. The outbreak of CSI started in 2009 and it is on its 5th year . It is not correct to call the situation that the “ pest is now still in outbreak” stage. Navasero et al,2014, had reported that an efficient parasitoid has been documented to cause up to 80% parasitization rate. Widespread recovery of damaged coconuts are already a common sights. The immediate challenge he’s talking about should have been done 2 or 3 years ago not now that the balance of nature is already happening. Yes, dinotefuran is the newest but not necessarily the safest and most promising among the neonicotinoids. The choice of dinotefural can be considered an arbitrary choice. There was no systematic evaluation of the different neonicotinoids. From the start, they focussed on dinotefuran. Evaluation of these insecticides should have been done much earlier. The pesticide industry is putting a big premium on preventing development of resistance. Rapid developments of resistance among neonicotinoids are extensively documented. In preventing development of resistance, the rule is not to expose two (2) generations of the pest. Based on the result of their study it takes 45 days before the residue of dinotefuran becomes undetectable in treated coconuts. The life cycle of CSI is less than 30 days. This means from the time of treatment to the dissipation of dinotefuran in treated coconut two generation of the pest is being exposed. Neonicotinoids may not be toxic only to be pollinators but also on beetles and fly pollinators. Several formulations of neonicotinoids are registered and recommended for the control of houseflies and pest beetles of some crops. For a truly scientific opinion on the CSI problem, the explanation of a national scientist entomologist who is still active and very much around should be sought.
Bibliography and Research Data on neonicotinoids Midwest USGS study on neo http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3941#.U9PlK7FnCGU http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3941 A neonicotinoid brand name Starkle is now being used to contain a coconut tree infestation by the Coconut Scale Insect (CSI). The Philippines has about 170 million production coconut trees, minus the 33 million Yolanda or Haiyan destroyed, and minus the 2.1 million infected by the CSI.
Colony collapse disorder http://www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?docid=15572 EU ban http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/about/intheworks/ccd-european-ban.html EU ban 2 http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/neonicotinoid-pesticides-are-a-huge Global moratorium syngenta bayer http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jul/15/ban-neonicotinoids-another-silent-spring-pesticide-moratorium “Worldwide contamination, indiscriminately wiping out wild animals, including those on which farming depends: these are the findings of an analysis of 800 scientific papers,” Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neonicotinoid “The neonicotinoid imidacloprid is currently the most widely used insecticide in the world. The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam.” Eight neonicotinoids from different companies are currently on the market.
|Name||Company||Products||Turnover in million US$ (2009)|
|Imidacloprid||Bayer CropScience||Confidor, Admire, Gaucho, Advocate||1,091|
|Thiamethoxam||Syngenta||Actara, Platinum, Cruiser||627|
|Clothianidin||Sumitomo Chemical/Bayer CropScience||Poncho, Dantosu, Dantop||439|
|Acetamiprid||Nippon Soda||Mospilan, Assail, ChipcoTristar||276|
|Dinotefuran||Mitsui Chemicals||Starkle, Safari, Venom||79|
|Sulfoxaflor||Dow Agrosciences||Transform, Closer||N/A|
|Nitenpyram||Sumitomo Chemical||Capstar, Bestguard||8|
US EPA REVIEW OF DINO http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinotefuran “Its mechanism of action involves disruption of the insect’s nervous system … In order to avoid harming beneficial insects such as bees, it should not be applied during bloom … In July of 2013, the state of Oregon temporarily restricted the use of dinotefuran pending the results of an investigation into a large bee kill.” + “In March 2012, the Center for Food Safety, Pesticide Action Network, Beyond Pesticides and a group of beekeepers filed an Emergency Petition with the EPA asking the agency to suspend the use of clothianidin. The agency denied the petition. In March 2013, the US EPA was sued by the same group, with the Sierra Club and the Center for Environmental Health joining, which accused the agency of performing inadequate toxicity evaluations and allowing insecticide registration based on inadequate studies. The case, Ellis et al v. Bradbury et al, was stayed as of October 2013.”